Category Archives: Surnames

1847 Census of African Americans in Philadelphia

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While doing some research this morning, I notice that Ancestry.com has a promotion and portal for Quaker records. I’d recently become aware of the Quaker census of African American in Philadelphia. I’ve not had the opportunity to track this down at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania but I’m pleased to learn that the documents are available online via Ancestry. So if you have ancestors who may have lived in Philadelphia in 1847, let me know. If I can find some information for you, I will share if you do not have an Ancestry subscription.

Here is a description:

About Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, African-American Census, 1847

The Philadelphia Monthly Meeting of the Society of Friends (Quakers) commissioned this census of thousands of free African American families and individuals living in six areas of the Philadelphia. This was done in order to further their efforts to help the African-American population of the city.

The census includes information on a variety of social variables. Included for each family: Name of head of household, household size by gender and age; street address; employment and compensation of everyone working in the home; children’s schools; value of personal property; whether members were born in Pennsylvania, debts, taxes, ability to read and write, how many family members were born as slaves and how much they paid for their freedom (and to whom, when known).

Although this census excludes the substantial number of African Americans living in white households, they provide data not found in the federal population schedules. When combined with the information on African Americans taken from federal censuses, it offers researchers a richly detailed view of Philadelphia’s African American community in 1847.

 

I hope I find some ancestors in this file as I’ve often suspected I would. I’ll spend some time combing through these documents.

I’ve been a little busy with other projects but I must finish the census of Free Philadelphians with trades.  I hope someone is finding this information useful. As always, I’m looking for other genealogists who have an interest in this time period. If you know of anyone, please let me know.

Trades of the Colored People in the City of Philadelphia and Districts 1838 – Part 1

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*These carry on business. Of those not marked about one-half work as Journeyman, and the rest from choice or necessity follow other occupations

 

Baker
Name Address
BROWN, George Parham Street
CAMPBELL, Randolph U. Bradford below 12th
FOX, Daniel D. Passyunk road below South
HAINESLEY, Risdon S 7th below Shippen
HOY, Isaac 12th below Shippen
*MILLER, James 27 Prune
ROUKER, Alfred Eagles court
TURNER, John Hog Alley
WILSON, James
Basket-Maker
*BANKS, Murrill Pine above 10th
*BROWN, William C corner of South Second and Swede’s alley
*RUSSELL, Richard Giles’s alley
Blacksmith
BANKS, Solomon Eagle court
*BOOKER, Cornelius Lebanon, below Fitzwater
*BOOKER, John Lebanon, below Fitzwater
BOUNDS, Richard
*BRAVARD, John Shippen, below 8th
BROWN, John Relief alley
COSTELLO, Reuben Prosperous alley
GLAZE, George, (and carpenter) Franklin st, Southwark
GREEN, Samuel T Davis’s court
HOLLEY, Aaron Type alley, above 12th
JOHNSON, John 36 Gaskill
LEWIS, John Davis’s court
MILLER, John Coates, between 11th and 12th
MILLER, Nathaniel Morris, below Fitzwater
MOORE, George Paschall’s alley
MORRIS, Benjamin corner of Broad and Paper alley
*QUIN, John near Schuykill Front and Vine
ROBERTS, Charles J Bonsall street
SHAD, Jeremiah Kneass court, George st
STEVENSON, John Shippen below 8th
THOMAS, William Atkins court
WELLS, John Currant alley, above Locust
Black and Whitesmith
ALBERT, Abraham Bedford, below 8th
CRAMER, James Pine, below 10th
SCOTTRON, Samuel 6th, below Catherine
SMITH, Amos Wagner’s alley
*SMITH, Thomas Wagner’s alley
Bleeders
*ALLEN, Richard 7th, below Lombard
*BIAS, James J.G. 2 Acorn alley
*BUTLER, Wallace 16 Bird’s court
*COPELAND, Allen (and shoemaker) 155 Lombard
*MCCRUMMILL, James (and dentist) 266 North 3d
*NASH, Charles (and cabinet maker) Qunice, above Spruce
*NORMAN, William 226 Lombard
PEPPELL, Philip 3 Shippen
*PURDY, John (and shoemaker) Middle alley
Bleeders and Hairdressers
*BASS, Joseph Race, corner of 4th
*BUTLER, Thomas 3 North 8th
*FURBER, William W 85 South 12th
*ROLLEY, Abner 112 North 5th
*WHITE, Jacob C 100 Old York road
Boot and Shoemaker
ANDERSON, Philip P Emeline street
*ARMSTEAD, John Juniper alley
*ARMSTRONG, John 61 Currant alley
AUGUSTUS, Joseph
BARR, Alexander 12th above Spruce
BIBBINS, John Osborn’s court
*BIRD, James 252 South 7th
*BLAKE, Levin Shippen, below 7th
BROWN, Andrew (and tanner) 1 Toy’s court
*BROWN, James 243 Shippen
*BROWN, John L 359 South
*BROWN, jr. Morris 359 South
BROWN, sr. Morris 241 Shippen
*BURNS, Francis Locust, above 6th
*CAMPBELL, Anthony Milton, above 10th
CHAVERS, Jesse Leydon court
*COLLY, Daniel (and tanner and currier) 189 South 6th
*CONDY, James Catherine, above 7th
*COOTS, Reuben 12th, above Spruce
*COPELAND, Allen (and bleeder) 155 Lombard
*CORNISH, Henry C St Mary’s, below 7th
CUSTIS, Lewis Washington, above 11th
*DAVIS, Manuel 34 1/2 South 2d
DAVIS, Peter Sterling alley
DEPEE, Abraham Prosperous alley
DEVANT, John
*DORSEY, Thomas 36 North 6th
*DOUGLASS, Levi 3d, below Race
*DRUMMOND, Lewis 20 North 4th
FITZGERALD, Thomas
FLAMER, William Carpenter, between 8th and 9th
FORMAN, Francis Type alley
FOSTER, William Mary’s alley
FREEMAN, Charles 150 Spruce
*GORDON, jr, Robert C 57 Pine
HARRISON, Isaiah Catherine, below 7th
HENRY, James
*HILL, Champion corner 7th and Carpenter
*HOLCOMBE, Robert L rear 126 North 2d
JACKSON, Richard Lombard, above 7th
*JAMES, Richard Wood, below Schuykill 6th
JAMES, Toliver Carlton, near Schuykill 6th
JEFFRIES, jr, William corner 7th and Fitzwater
JOHNSON, H M B Otter, by Front
*LANDOWAY, Abel 20 South 4th
*LEWIS, Joseph St Mary’s, above 7th
*LUCAS, John 150 Spruce
MACKLIN, Isaac Prosperous alley
MEDAD, George Washington, above 11th
*MEDAD, Stephen Washington, above 11th
MINTO, Henry Washington, below 12th
MONTIER, Hiram Webb’s alley
MONTIER, Joseph 10th above Market
MONTIER, Richard 18 Lombard
*MONTIER, Solomon 10th above Market
MONTIER, William Webb’s alley
*MOORE, Richard 210 south 7th
MOREN, John 119 Plum
*NORRIS, John 197 Lombard
PARKER, Elam Powell, below 6th
PARKER, Wesley 18 St Mary
PERRY, John Middle alley
PLEASANT, Peter Pearl, bet 13th and Broad
*PROCTOR, Walter 17 Elizabeth
PURDY, John (and bleeder) Middle alley
*PUSEY, Alexander 157 south 4th
QUIRE, Peter Dean’s alley
*RICHMOND, James 4th, above Coates
RILEY, William H corner Little Pine and 7th
RINGOLD, Henry 157 south 4th
*ROBERTS, John B 151 Locust
ROBINSON, Joseph Pine, above 11th
*ROLLINS, Daniel North-East corner 10th and Cherry
SAUNDERS, Joseph Pine, above Master
SCOTT, Henry 144 Locust
SCOTT, James 20 North 4th
*SIMPSON, Charles 95 north 5th
SIMPSON, Emery 5th, below George, (NL)
*SIMPSON, William 48 south 4th
SMITH, William Union, above 2d
*SPENCER, Peter Locust, above 10th
*STILLE, John Centre, below 13th
STOKELY, John Pearl, above 13th
*STRATTON, John Bedford, below 8th
*TEMPLE, James Chestnut, corner Strawberry
*TERONE, Charles corner 8th and Lombard
*THOMPSON, Thomas Locust, above 10th
TURNER, Jesse Quince, above Spruce
VENNING, Luke Lebanon, below Fitzwater
*WANE, Cato B (and carpenter) 161 south 6th
WATSON, Jacob St. Mary, above 7th
WEEKS, Nathaniel Quince, above Spruce
WILLIAMS, Jacob St. Mary, above 7th
WILLIAMS, Stephen 150 Spruce
WILSON, Thomas 19 Parham
WILSON, William Henry 10th, below Lombard

Source:  Register Of Trades Of The Colored People In The City of Philadelphia And Districts, Merrihew and Gunn, Printers, 1838

1863 Septennial Census – Philadelphia Wards 13 – 16 – African Amercians

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A pattern emerging maybe…an urban/suburban devide? As we move farther away from the city center, the number of free people of color declines.

 

Ward 13
Name Surname Occupation Age Yr Born Sex Division Pg
Bustill Chas Porter 45 1818 M 4 95
Ward 14
Name Surname Occupation Age Yr Born Sex Division Pg
William Winters Dealer M 2 54
Isaac William Barber M 4 114
Bustill J.M. Plasterer M 7 178
Jones Harriet D 7 185
Ward 15
Name Surname Occupation Age Yr Born Sex Division Pg
Williams Henry Labor M 2 28
Knight David Barber M 3 76
Singleton Grayson ?eamman M 3 86
Sands Joshua Barber M 5 148
Ward 16
Name Surname Occupation Age Yr Born Sex Division Pg
Griffith Aaron Waiter M 8 222

 

Source: Septennial Census Returns, 1779–1863. Box 1026, microfilm, 14 rolls. Records of the House of Representatives. Records of the General Assembly, Record Group 7. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburg, PA.

 

Other Documents

1863 Septennial Census – Philadelphia Ward 1 – African Americans

1863 Septennial Census – Philadelphia Ward 2 – African Americans

1863 Septennial Census – Philadelphia Ward 3 – African Americans

1863 Septennial Census – Philadelphia Ward 4&5 – African Americans

1863 Septennial Census – Philadelphia Ward 7 – African Americans

1863 Septennial Census – Philadelphia Ward 8 – African Americans

1863 Septennial Census – Philadelphia Ward 9 – African Americans

1863 Septennial Census – Philadelphia Ward 10 – 12 – African Americans

 

1863 Septennial Census – Philadelphia Ward 4 + 5 – African Americans

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Ward 4 and 5 are included in this post due to the small number of African Americans in Ward 4.

Ward 4

Name Surname Occupation Age Yr Born Sex Division Pg
Williams William P Hair Dresser 51 1812 M 6 147
Venning Sarah Man??? Mk 53 1810 F 7 173

Ward 5

Name Surname Occupation Age Yr Born Sex Division Pg
Forten Charlotte Lady 72 1791 F 1 6
Dunton John G Janitor 45 1818 M 3 57
Eddy Joshua Barber 61 1802 M 3 58
Hill Louisa Dress Maker 41 1822 F 3 61
Harkins Sarah Storekeeper 40 1823 F 3 61
Jorden Thomas B Tavern Keep 59 1804 M 3 62
Shorter Hariet Storekeeper 72 1791 F 3 72
Stevens Martha Dress Maker 24 1839 F 3 72
Wyett Anna Washerwoman 55 1808 F 3 76
Wilkins Sarah Storekeeper 50 1813 F 3 76
Dougherty Charles Furrier ? 28 1835 M 5 110
Moore Elizabeth Shopkeeper 74 1789 F 5 118
Phillis Elizabeth Shopkeeper 35 1828 F 6 149

 

Source: Septennial Census Returns, 1779–1863. Box 1026, microfilm, 14 rolls. Records of the House of Representatives. Records of the General Assembly, Record Group 7. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburg, PA.

Other Documents
1863 Septennial Census – Philadelphia Ward 1- African Americans
1863 Septennial Census – Philadelphia Ward 2 – African Americans
1863 Septennial Census – Philadelphia Ward 3 – African Americans

1863 Septennial Census – Philadelphia Ward 3 – African Americans

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Taxable inhabitants are generally defined as all males over the age of 21 or females who owned their own property (before 1848, only widowed or single woman could own property in their own name). The first enumeration law passed in 1779[1]. In 1800 the law included the enumeration of slaves[2]; an 1821 law included the deaf and dumb[3]; an 1836 law required the enumeration of the blind[4].

Source

 

Name Surname Occupation Age Yr Born Sex Division Pg
Jones Aaron Porter 41 1822 M 3 59
Parker Elvira Lady F 4 94
Charmick James Porter 35 1828 M 5 108
Cusick Aaron Stevedore 56 1807 M 5 108
Fletcher Anthony Porter 49 1814 M 5 111
Graceland Henry Driver 26 1837 M 5 112
Haines Anna Lady 47 1816 F 5 113
Johnson Israel Porter 65 1798 M 5 114
Irvine Caroline Lady 40 1823 F 5 114
Jones Frishy Porter 36 1827 M 5 114
Wilson Alexander Porter 37 1826 M 5 126
Brown Cashamir Lady 30 1833 F 7 161
Chadrick John Coffin Maker 43 1820 M 7 163
Chase Edward Barber 58 1805 M 7 163
Durham Nathaniel Barber 37 1826 M 7 165
Fowler Mary Lady 39 1824 F 7 167
Gallway Wm Waiter 36 1827 M 7 168
Jones Frishy Barber 39 1824 M 7 170
Jackson Eliza Lady 34 1829 F 7 170
Marcus Chas Barber 40 1823 M 7 173
Cook Edward Waiter M 8 194
Saunders Genin Gentleman M 8 213

 

Source: Septennial Census Returns, 1779–1863. Box 1026, microfilm, 14 rolls. Records of the House of Representatives. Records of the General Assembly, Record Group 7. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburg, PA.

Other Documents
1863 Septennial Census – Philadelphia Ward 1 – African Americans
1863 Septennial Census – Philadelphia Ward 1 – African Americans

1863 Septennial Census – Philadelphia – African Americans – Ward 2

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Septennial Census Returns, 1779-1863This series contains returns for a census conducted every seven years, enumerating taxpaqyers for the purpose of determining representation in the General Assembly. Only about 11% of the original recordds have survived and the only informationa provided in most of the surviving returns is the name of the taxpayer, though occasionally the occupation is also given. The style and details of enumeration varies for the differrent counties and in different periods of time. All counties have lists of “Taxable inhabitants” and “freemen”, while others also include “inmates”. Commencing in 1800, the age, name, gender and place of residence of each slave is also frequently given and occasionally the name of the slave’s owner. Last names of slaves are usually not given because changes in ownership would have altered these over time. A few returns for Franklin County (1828, 1835, 1842), Columbia County (1821), Mifflin County (1821), and Philadelphia City (1863) provide the name, age and gender of deaf, dumb and blind inhabitants.

Source

 

Name Surname Occupation Sex Division Page
Bagwell Richard Bk Layer M 2 34
Lloyd Mary Wash Woman F 2 44
Bassett Ann Lady F 6 156
Perkins William Dealer M 8 231
Cole Aaron Waiter M 9 247
Christianson Mary Lady F 9 247
Gales Phebe Lady F 9 251
Iredell G. L. Innkeeper M 9 253
Miller William Black S. M 9 256
Masten James Driver M 9 256
Masten Elizabeth Lady F 9 256
Masten Daniel Barber M 9 256
Martin Letitia Lady F 9 256
Offet John Waiter M 9 261
Pernell B.J. Barber M 9 262
Scott William Dealer M 9 266
Taylor Margaret Dealer F 9 267
Worrock William Driver M 9 269
Wilson Robert Dealer M 9 269
Wethrington Agnes Lady F 9 270
Wethrington Joseph Musician M 9 270
Winston John Contractor M 9 270
Bergan Samuel Driver M 10 276
Benson George Waiter M 10 276
Green William H Plasterer M 10 283
Cromwell Levi Cook M 11 306
Dorman Mary Ann Dressmaker F 11 307
Hack J. W. H. MD M 11 311
Wilson Peter H Barber M 11 325

 

Source: Septennial Census Returns, 1779–1863. Box 1026, microfilm, 14 rolls. Records of the House of Representatives. Records of the General Assembly, Record Group 7. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburg, PA.

Other Documents:

1863 Septennial Census – Philadelphia Ward 1- African Americans

 

1863 Septennial Census – Philadelphia Ward 1- African Americans

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I hope someone will find this information useful. I've compiled the names of every African American listed in the 1863 census. This is only for Ward 1 in Philadelphia. There are additional wards to add and I will do so over time.

I've combed through the 1863 census and did not find any of my ancestors. The septennial census was conducted with Pennsylvania citizens who were eligible to be taxed. This would probably mean land or property owners. So another confirmation that my ancestors were very humble. If anyone knows of others who are researching African Americans in Philadelphia in the 18th and 19th century, please let me know. Even if you do not have any ancestors in Philadelphia during this time but love history, contact me.

 

Background:

While Pennsylvania did not conduct state censuses, beginning in 1779, the state did make enumerations of inhabitants every seven years for tax purposes and to determine representation in state government. These counts are called the septennial censuses.

NAME SURNAME OCCUPATION AGE SEX DIVISION PAGE
Beasly Mary Ann 27 F 1 7
Brown Jane 30 F 1 7
Brown James ? Lab 40 M 1 7
Eincle Willimina 51 F 1 11
Harding John Lab 52 M 1 14
Harding Maria 32 F 1 15
Dewey? Jared? ?? 44 M 1 19
Dewey? Ann 40 F 1 19
Dewey? ?? 1 19
Dewey? ?? 1 19
Prettyman Enoc Lab 60 M 1 23
Prettyman Harriet 30 F 1 23
Tyson Rachel 45 F 1 27
Wilson Mary 40 F 1 30
Wilson Joshua Lab 22 M 1 30
Wilson Thomas Lab 26 M 1 30
Crossed out 1 31
Lynda Ann 25 F 1 31
Anderson Abraham Labourer 43 M 2 36
Anderson Elizabeth 26 F 2 36
Becketts Isaac Labourer 43 M 2 37
Becketts Le Soldier 20 M 2 37
Becketts Eliza 33 F 2 37
Goins Ann 40 F 2 42
Jackson ?? ? ? F 2 44
Jackson ?? ? ? F 2 44
Murray Jeremiah Labourer 35 M 2 47
Murray Charles Labourer M 2 47
Murray Jillian Ann 90 F 2 47
Purcell Mary Ann 35 F 2 51
Pots ? John Labourer 32 M 2 51
Price Ann 50 F 2 51
Ringold Mary 50 F 2 52
R???L Alex ?? 60 M 2 52
Seafir ?? ?? 62 M 2 54
Scott Abraham Labourer 46 M 2 54
Scott Cornelia Labourer 27 F 2 54
Samden George Labourer 38 M 2 54
Samden Rebecca 33 F 2 54
Thomas Jacob Labourer 50 M 2 55
Thomas Sarah 30 F 2 55
Win?? Samuel Labourer 88 M 2 57
Win?? Mary Ann 36 F 2 57
Williams Nancy 40 F 2 57
Williams Isiah M 2 57
Williams John Labourer 35 M 2 57
Williams Ma?? Ann 40 F 2 57
Crommiere Elizabeth 61 F 3 66
Groomall Willis Dealer 71 M 3 66
Corbet Harry M 3 66
Chatham Stephen Watchman 59 M 3 66
Harris Charles Steward 33 M 3 72
Paul Frank B Driver 25 M 3 80
Smish Hester Labourer 78 M 3 83
S?? Glen Labourer 30 M 3 84
Starrord James Waiter 45 M 3 84
Watts Sarah 38 F 3 87
Watts James Labourer 40 M 3 87
Colly Daniel Cord. 50 M 6 151
Deary Chas C Barber 37 M 6 152
Emery Elizabeth Washer 68 F 6 153
Acres Samuel Carter 29 M 8 203
Beasly Stephen Porter 33 M 8 205
Brown George Lab 30 M 8 205
Bracy Thomas Lab 60 M 8 205
Boyer Thomas Lab 60 M 8 205
Boyer Rachel 50 F 8 205
Blankesin William Teamster 38 M 8 205
Cooper William Cor??? 42 M 8 207
Charleston Henry Bricklayer 28 M 8 207
Clark Thomas Carter 28 M 8 207
Clark James Lab 30 M 8 207
Collins John W Lab 23 M 8 207
Durr Mrs 35 F 8 209
Davis Jane 49 F 8 209
Donnell Mrs 40 F 8 209
Dorge Chas Bricklayer 40 M 8 209
Doyle Benj Carter 37 M 8 209
Drane Reid Driver 38 M 8 209
Drane Ellen 25 F 8 209
Dick M??? Steward 35 M 8 209
Dick Cripper Waiter 24 M 8 209
Dick Caroline 41 F 8 209
Dick Elizabeth 23 F 8 209
English John Lab 50 M 8 209
English Ann E 40 F 8 209
Harner Barton Lab 41 M 8 213
Johnson Richard Lab 48 M 8 213
Jones Thomas ?? 58 M 8 213
Latimer Sarah Ann 42 F 8 215
Luthers John S Blacksmith 32 M 8 215
Luthers John S ?? 67 M 8 215
Lynn Harriet 50 F 8 215
Nash Washington Porter 30 M 8 220
Prettyman Joshua Clerk 25 M 8 222
Prettyman Sarah 22 F 8 222
Royal Edward D ??? Of Meats 61 M 8 224
Sayers Benjamin Lab 30 M 8 226
Teaman WM Lab 62 M 8 227
Young William Reamer 40 M 8 232
White Barry Labourer 50 M 11 320
White Emmeline 50 F 11 320
White Mary Ann 22 F 11 320
Weaver Minnie 42 F 11 320
Watson Abigail 32 F 11 320

 

Source: Septennial Census Returns, 1779–1863. Box 1026, microfilm, 14 rolls. Records of the House of Representatives. Records of the General Assembly, Record Group 7. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburg, PA.

They Crossed Over – Born Enslaved, Died Free

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Below are a list of my ancestors who were born enslaved but lived past the end of the Civil War to live free. I wonder how many never made it over with them or how many they lost never to find along the way.

Garland Arnold (1851, Georgia) m. Fannie Gray (1855, Georgia) – 2nd Great Grandparents

Garland and Fannie Arnold 1880

1880 Census – Clayton County, Georgia, 12 June 1880

Robert Arnold (1830, Virginia) m. Patsy (1825, Virginia) – 3rd Great Grandparents – parents of Garland Arnold

1880 Census, Clayton County - 14 June 1880

1880 Census – Clayton County, Georgia, 14 June 1880

Boston Mattox (30 Jun 1849, Georgia – 29 Jun 1928, West Virginia) – 2nd Great Grandfather

1880 Census - Wilkes County, 13 January 1920

1880 Census – Wilkes County, Georgia, 13 January 1920

Ester Mattox (1836, Georgia) – 3rd Great Grandmother – Mother of Boston Mattox

1880 Census - Wilkes County, Georgia, 4 June 1880

1880 Census – Wilkes County, Georgia, 4 June 1880

Benjamin Faver (1825, Georgia) – 3rd Great Grandfather

1880 Census - Wilkes County, Georgia, 4 June 1880

1880 Census – Wilkes County, Georgia, 4 June 1880

Sabry Turner Walton Wright (1835, Georgia) – 3rd Great Grandmother

1900 Census - Wilkes County, Georgia, 7 June 1900

1900 Census – Wilkes County, Georgia, 7 June 1900

Winnie Faver (1798, Virginia) – 4th Great Grandmother – Mother of Benjamin Faver

1880 Census - Oglethorpe County, Georgia, 4 June 1880

1880 Census – Oglethorpe County, Georgia, 4 June 1880

George Banks (1830, Virginia) m. Fannie Bowles (1849, Virginia) – 3rd Great Grandparents

1880 Census - Henrico County, Virginia, 4th June 1880

1880 Census – Henrico County, Virginia, 4th June 1880

Thomas Williamson (1841, North Carolina) m. Ella Gunn (1859, North Carolina) – 3rd Great Grandparents

1910 Census - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 16 April 1910

1910 Census – Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 16 April 1910

Squire Gunn (1810, North Carolina) – 4th Great Grandfather – Father of Ella Gun

1870 Census - Person County, North Carolina, 7 October 1870

1870 Census – Person County, North Carolina, 7 October 1870

Peter West (1848, Mississippi) m. Dorcus Brown (1851, Alabama) – 2nd Great Grandparents

1870 Census - Hinds County, Mississippi, 15 July, 1870

1870 Census – Hinds County, Mississippi, 15 July, 1870

Simon Durr (4 September 1845, Simpson County, Mississippi – 13 March 1839, Copiah County, Mississippi) m. Sarah Griffith (Jun 1852, Mississippi) – 2nd Great Grandfather

1900 Census - Simpson County, Mississippi, 25 June 1900

1900 Census – Simpson County, Mississippi, 25 June 1900

Robert Durr (1820, South Carolina) – 3rd Great Grandfather – Father of Simon Durr

1900 Census - Simpson County, Mississippi, 14 June 1900

1900 Census – Simpson County, Mississippi, 14 June 1900

Henry F. Griffith (Aug 1838, Mississippi) m. Agnis Dear (1849, Mississippi) – 3rd Great Grandparents – Parents of Sarah Griffith

1900 Census - Lawrence County, Mississippi, 27 June 1900

1900 Census – Lawrence County, Mississippi, 27 June 1900

Mahala Dear (1800, North Carolina) – 4th Great Grandmother – Mother of Agnis Dear

1880 Census - Lawrence County, Mississippi, 19 June 1880

1880 Census – Lawrence County, Mississippi, 19 June 1880

Raymond Smith (1835, Louisiana) m. Caroline Iles (1850, Mississippi) – 2nd Great Grandparents

1880 Census - Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana, 16 June 1880

1880 Census – Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana, 16 June 1880

Jane Iles (1830, Virginia) – 3rd Great Grandmother – Mother of Caroline Iles

Jane Iles - 1900

Horris Church (1858,  St. Mary Parish, Louisiana) – 2nd Great Grandfather

Horris Church - 1900

Tom Griffin (1852, Virginia) m. Mary (1835, Louisiana) – 3rd Great Grandparents

Emma was born in 1869. Logical conclusion would be that her parents lived until that date. Family lore says Emma was raised by her father Tom

Emma was born in 1869. Logical conclusion would be that her parents lived until that date. Family lore says Emma was raised by her father Tom

In many cases, these ancestors place me three generations FROM being enslaved. Homage paid to those known and unknown. As James Baldwin said, these ancestors bought and paid for my passage as a citizen to the United States. I owe my country no me!